Also, I forgot to mention: when I was cycling the bolt by hand, I noticed that there seemed to be a fair amount of clearance between the bolt and receiver. Given that, if I pushed the bolt over toward the "ejector side" of the receiver while cycling, the shell would easily eject. The receiver does not "look" worn, per se, but I again, I'm no gunsmith and haven't looked at many of these parts.
Understand that ordinance has some of the sloppyist fits of almost any machinery. It has to to assure that it will run even when dirty. Ever shake a 1911? If it doesn't rattle, I'm a little suspect of the gun. That rattle is why they run so reliably.
Your observation of your bolt/receiver and the fact that if you push the bolt towards the ejector and the case ejects confirms in my mind that the extractor is not fit proper. You're loading the extractor hook against the case when you push the bolt towards the ejector, making it hold the case tighter than it normal does.
I fit the extractor on every 10-22 I sell, along with the firing pin. I take the extractor and clamp it hook up in a small vice, making sure the space between the hook and lug clears the jaws of the vice. Using a small flat file I remove material at a slight angle, taking more off at the hook end and practically nothing at the lug end. Take off about the thickness of a business card, that's about 0.010". That's a good start.
Install the extractor back in the bolt and try putting a cartridge case up under it again. You should see the extractor move out and the case should snap up in place with some 'authority'. You can feel the click when the hook goes over center of the case.
As a caution, when you take the bolt apart, place it in a large plastic bag. The springs can find hiding places you never will. Don't ask me how I know this.